This study aimed to investigate the histological features of deproteinized equine bone mineral (DEBM) and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) after human sinus augmentation with the lateral approach. Twenty-three sinus augmentations were performed in 16 patients (male: 10/female: 6) using DEBM or ABB in a randomized fashion. Healing took place over the next 6 months. Bone core biopsies (N = 23) were obtained for each subject prior to placing the dental implants. The biopsies were processed for both histological descriptions and histomorphometric analysis. Statistical analyses were applied as appropriate, defining statistical significance as p < 0.05. Core bone biopsies revealed no di_erences in terms of newly formed bone between groups, or differences in terms of tissue inflammation.