The different bone grafting biomaterials that are marketed nowadays are synthetic or natural. Among natural ones, biomaterials derived from mammal bone are of great interest, since the structure, the chemical composition and the morphology of the mineral part of bone coming from different mammal species is quite similar if not identical. Yet the deantigenation process used to deprive the heterologous bone tissue from the organic antigenic part can alter the kinetic of osteoclastic remodeling of such a mineral part. This is what happens when the common high temperature process is applied: the final product is nearly not resorbable at all.
In order to overcome these limitations, an enzymatic deantigenation method has been devised. It is based on the application of a mixture of enzymes that operate at 37°C, and does not alter the remodeling properties of the mineral bone component, as it is shown also by histomorphometric studies. Moreover, recent developments and refi nements of the enzymatic process itself, have allowed developing a new class of animal demineralized bone matrixes that show promising osteoproductive properties in stimulating bone regeneration.
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