Maxillary sinus pneumatization limits implant placement in the edentulous posterior maxilla. Grafted sinus floor augmentation through Schneiderian membrane elevation and space obliteration with autogenous bone grafts, bone substitutes, or a combination of the two has often been used to resolve this problem. More recently, non-grafted sinus floor elevation has been established. This is based on the concept of membrane elevation and support either by tenting technique or using space-maintaining mesh. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictability of new bone formation after sinus floor elevation using space-maintaining mesh without graft material and to illustrate the difference between the use of bioresorbable and titanium meshes. Eight patients with bilateral sinus pneumatization were selected for implant placement in the edentulous posterior maxilla. Pneumatized sinuses were approached through the lateral window technique; these were elevated and maintained with resorbable or titanium meshes. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically immediately and at 6 months postoperative. At 6 months, a core bone biopsy was obtained from the planned implant position using a trephine drill, and the bone formed was examined histologically. Healing was uneventful in all patients, and radiographic, clinical, and histological evidence of new bone formation was seen in both groups. Titanium and resorbable meshes were found to be reliable and predictable as space-maintaining devices.
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