This study was performed to evaluate histologically and radiographically the quality and the quantity of the formed bone after alveolar ridge augmentation using micro-granules of a resorbable bioactive ceramic (synthetic) with and without rhBMP-2. Saddle-type alveolar ridge defects (12X7) mm were created in dog mandibles. Defects were grafted with micro-granules of synthetic resorbable bioactive ceramic loaded with rhBMP-2 10 μg and covered with collagen membrane. Control groups included defects grafted with synthetic granules without rhBMP-2 and un-grafted defects. Radiographs were taken for the dissected defect sites at 2 and 4 months. Radiographs were analyzed for bone density using the ImageJ 1.46 program. Dissected defect sites were then fixed in formalin and processed for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Data was statistically analyzed using student t-test and 1-way ANOVA test with p<0.05 as statistically significant. Radiographic analysis of augmented bone revealed bone density equal to or denser than the surrounding native bone in synthetic treated defects with and without rhBMP-2. Qualitative and quantitative histologic evaluation revealed dense well arranged bone trabeculae in both the synthetic treated defects with and without rhBMP-2 with more rapid bone formation and graft resorption in the rhBMP-2 group. Maturation of newly formed bone was noted on the periphery and inside the synthetic pores. No adverse reactions, excessive bone formation or fluid filled voids were detected. Results of this study suggest that synthetic is an effective graft material in alveolar ridge augmentation. SCPC/rhBMP-2 hybrid accelerated bone regeneration and enhanced bone quality and quantity as revealed by radiographic and histologic evaluation.
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