The persistence of intrabony defects at the end of the initial periodontal therapy represents a site-specific risk factor for the progression of periodontitis, since the sites associated with these defects constitute ecological niches within which the reformation of a pathogenic biofilm will be more likely to favour a re-infection process. Guided tissue regeneration techniques (GTR) aim at the resolution of these defects by covering them by means of a barrier membrane (possibly associated with the grafting of a biomaterial) in such a way as to allow access and proliferation only to cells capable of reconstructing the periodontal attachment apparatus, in accordance with the principle of selective cellular exclusion. There are various surgical techniques, whose indication essentially depends on the morphology and topographic location of the intraosseous defect: when a defect affects an element adjacent to an edentulous area, the technique of choice is the one called “Crestal Incision”.
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