Despite the successful outcome of the initial therapy, it is frequent to observe the presence of intrabony defects as an inevitable sequelae of periodontal disease during the re-evaluation phase: this represents a site-specific risk factor for the progression of periodontitis since the sites associated with these defects constitute ecological niches within which the reformation of a pathogenic biofilm will be more likely to favour a re-infection process.
Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) techniques address the treatment of these defects and are based on the principle of selective cellular exclusion: after debridement of the intraosseous lesion and treatment of the root surface, which must be carefully decontaminated by the bacterial biofilm, the defect is covered with a barrier membrane (possibly associated with a biomaterial grafted within the defect itself) in order to allow access and proliferation to the only cells capable of reconstructing the periodontal attack apparatus in its entirety.
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